For many, Tor has become a household name. It’s a guaranteed, safe way to stay anonymous on the internet. In theory, no one can see what you’re doing online when you use the Tor browser. Moreover, it’s one of the easiest ways to access to the dark web. Over the past years, however, it has become apparent on multiple occasions that Tor’s security suffers from some serious problems. The FBI, CIA, and NSA have all been able to crack Tor’s security. So how safe is Tor really? Is it still a decent way to anonymously surf the web?
The short answer is yes. You can use the Tor-browser to surf anonymously. However, we strongly discourage you from using just Tor for online protection. Multiple incidents have shown that unsafe use of Tor can result in a severe privacy leak or even issues with your online safety. Think of viruses, criminals and hacks. This article will shed some more light on these problems with Tor.
To protect yourself as well as possible, it’s best to use the Tor browser in combination with a decent VPN and some form of antivirus. A trustworthy VPN you could consider is NordVPN. This service has excellent encryption, is very user-friendly, and has thousands of servers available for you to choose from.
- Excellent protection and a large network of servers
- Nice and pleasing application
- No logs
How Tor works
The Tor browser is a special browser that anonymizes your internet traffic. Your data is sent past multiple Tor computers. With this process, the browser ensures that outsiders are unable to see where that data came from and where it’s going. In other words: the Tor browser makes it a lot more difficult for websites and even governments to link your online browsing behavior back to you. At every stop (or node) that Tor uses to cloak your data, an extra layer of encryption is added or removed, depending on which way the traffic is going. Therefore, using the Tor browser should result in a safe and anonymous internet experience.
Using Tor isn’t illegal. The browser is used by many different people, among them those who would like to stay anonymous because they’re using the platform to criticize the dictatorship of the country they’re living in. In these cases, Tor ensures freedom of speech. People using Tor still have the possibility to speak freely about political issues, without having to fear getting prosecuted for it. Simultaneously, there are also people that use the Tor browser out of principle. They simply don’t want to be tracked by companies and marketeers. However, it has come to light that Tor isn’t as safe as we all assumed.
Tor’s safety breached
Several court cases have shown that illegal activities on the dark web can sometimes be traced back to specific individuals using the Tor browser. Hence it seems to be possible to discover and collect a user’s data, including their IP address, even when they are being protected by Tor. In the past, Tor users have been found out because the NSA owned a huge part of the Tor nodes. This way, the NSA could clearly see who used those nodes. This was problematic for users who concern themselves with illegal practices. The moment those users are identifiable, the police can track them down and arrest them.
Tor is no longer as safe as it once was. Hackers constantly attempt to breach Tor’s security. Many groups, organisations, and individuals want access to the information the Tor browser is hiding and try to get that time and again. In 2014, one group of researchers succeeded. Financed by the government, they took a closer look at the Tor browser and were able to collect information from the browser for months on end. Weaknesses in the Tor software can surface in less compromising ways as well: in 2017, users found a leak that could easily make IP addresses of Linux and MacOS users visible. Tor didn’t sit around to watch all this happen: whenever a possible leak in the system was discovered, they patched it as soon as possible.
Which risks do I face when I use Tor?
Practice shows that Tor isn’t 100% safe. Like every other system, it has its weaknesses. Even though leaks are constantly being patched, you can never be sure whether that happens in time. Aside from this, there are more reasons to be worried about the safety that Tor offers. Here are a few.
First of all, Tor users are regularly hacked. This usually isn’t Tor’s fault. Instead, these hacks are possible because the user’s device is insufficiently protected. This could happen to anyone, which means every user should be aware of it. Criminals, viruses and other malicious content could be hiding on the web pages you visit – especially when you’re surfing the dark web. Therefore, it’s always important to carefully consider every click.
A second danger is that you could still be tracked online, even when using Tor. Bad exit nodes are one example of how this could happen. As illustrated in the picture at the top of this page, an exit node is the last stop before you’re connected to a website or page. If the person who controls this node wants to, they could see all the traffic passing through it. If this happens – as was the case with the NSA – your internet data is no longer private. There’s someone else who can directly see which pages you’re visiting. One thing worth mentioning is that you usually do stay anonymous in such a situation. Even the owner of the exit node isn’t able to trace down the source of the data, because it’s been through at least two other nodes before that.
Can I use the Tor browser for anonymous browsing?
You won’t have to worry too much about people trying to track you online if you only use Tor to browse the regular web. For most governments and other parties, that kind of traffic isn’t relevant enough to trace. Instead, they focus on uncovering illegal activities, some as horrifying as the spreading of child porn on the dark web.
Moreover, there’s no need to be wary of the initial intended audience of Tor either. Tor was initially built to allow for anonymous communication within the US Navy. Some people fear that the US Navy still has secret access to the traffic going through the browser. This is, however, not at all the case. Because Tor is open source, official organizations like the Navy won’t be able to hide any secret entrances within the code. Open source means that everyone has access to Tor’s code. An oddity, therefore, would be discovered and eliminated within moments.
In short, if you use the internet for general browsing, you don’t have too much to fear. Any online surveillance very likely won’t focus on you. However, this doesn’t mean you should use Tor without a care in the world. Before you tackle the internet with this browser, you should be aware of the dangers of the dark web.
Beware: Tor and the dark web
A final security issue we should discuss has to do with the dark web. Tor allows you to access this hidden part of the internet. Other popular browsers, such as Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge and Firefox, can’t do this. The dark web is part of the much bigger deep web. The dark web is unregulated and, therefore, quite fascinating. Sometimes it’s even terrifying. It contains bizarre websites you’d never encounter on the ‘normal’ internet. Among other things, you could come across marketplaces for drugs, weapons, and illegal credit cards.
Not every website on this dark part of the internet is as dodgy as this. Some pages allow people to speak their mind freely without having to fear prosecution from a dictatorial regime. The unregulated nature of the dark net results in a space that holds both the best and the worst of humanity.
Tor gives you access to the entirety of the dark web: it’s internet freedom in a browser. However, this freedom isn’t always safe. Always be careful when you use Tor to visit the dark web. This part of the internet isn’t monitored, meaning it can be very dangerous for you and your computer. Try not to get caught up in websites that infect your computer with malware. Stay away from websites that concern themselves with illegal activities. And finally, beware of hackers – they’re hiding everywhere.
How do I safely use Tor?
There are plenty of dangers waiting for you when you’re considering changing your browser to Tor. These dangers range from privacy risks to more serious attacks on your safety such as viruses and other forms of malware. In both cases, it’s important to arm yourself as well as possible. Here are a few tips that’ll help you get there:
- Install good antivirus software. Even with the safety settings of the Tor browser optimized, weird things can happen. This is especially dangerous on the dark web. If you use a trustworthy antivirus program, a lot of these problems can be prevented. Once you have installed good antivirus software, always make sure it’s up to date so you’ve got the best and most recent protection.
- Use Tor alongside a good VPN. Combining two privacy solutions ensures maximum protection. A VPN (Virtual Private Network) encrypts and anonymizes your online data traffic. This means none of your information will be visible, and neither can any of it be traced back to you. A VPN, combined with the options the Tor browser offers, provides you with double protection, making surfing a lot safer.